The currently conventional academic transcript is the result of a highly contingent history and will continue to evolve with changes in the political, organizational, and technical conditions of higher education. Care should be taken to distinguish research data from official academic records. The distinction between research data and official records should be clear and explicit to all parties involved in the production of student information.
Ben Gebre-Medhin (UC Berkeley) and Helen L. Chen (Stanford) summarize relevant discussion at the 2016 convening. A white paper by Ethan Hutt (Maryland) offers historical context.